Espionage, the secret collection of information, or intelligence, that the source of such information wishes to protect from disclosure. Intelligence refers to evaluated and processed information needed to make decisions. The term can be used with reference to business, military, economic, or political decisions, but it most commonly relates to governmental foreign and defense policy. Intelligence generally has a national security connotation and therefore exists in an aura of confidentiality.
International espionage methods and operations have few boundaries. They have been romanticized in popular fiction and the mass media, but in reality, espionage exists in a secret world of deception, fraud, and sometimes violence. Espionage involves the recruiting of agents in foreign nations; efforts to encourage the disloyalty of those possessing significant information; and audio surveillance as well as the use of a full range of modern photographic, sensing, and detection devices, and other techniques of eliciting secret information.
Events involving espionage are well documented throughout history. The ancient writings of Chinese and Indian military strategists such as Sun-Tzu and Chanakya contain information on deception and subversion. Chanakya's student Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya Empire in India, made use of assassinations, spies and secret agents, which are described in Chanakya's rastra.
The Cold War involved intense espionage activity between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and China and their allies, particularly related to nuclear weapons secrets. Recently, espionage agencies have targeted the illegal drug trade and those considered terrorists. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China.
Different intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others. The former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources to research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. The number of agents they recruited judged both Soviet political (KGB) and military intelligence officers.
Today the situation has become tenser, because of disclosure of cases of espionage by American intelligence agencies. In June 2013 Snowden passed the Washington Post and the Guardian series of secret materials about the programs of surveillance of the U.S. intelligence and the UK on the internet. According to the NSA, at the disposal of journalists could get to 200 thousands of secret documents. Snowden is still hiding from the U.S. government, as it has opened a criminal case that carries serious consequences to ex NSA employee. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder said that the U.S. government was ready to negotiate on the criminal case against Edward Snowden, but only after a former National Security Agency contractor pleaded guilty. The Attorney General reiterated that the U.S. is not prepared to pardon Snowden; diversion documents which, according to U.S. officials, a threat to national security. Many countries have expressed their displeasure about this. American service even spied for the heads of states in concert with them, such as Germany.
The situation can only get worse if the international community does not stop spying and not sign the relevant documents.
In our time, appeared such kind of espionage like industrial espionage.
Industrial espionage may pursue one of the following tasks:
1. Obtaining information about a competitor. The obtaining information itself does not always lead to harm to the object of espionage, illegal methods are only receiving it. The findings are summarized and analyzed, and then it is made the decisions about the way forward. If the information indicates that a competitor has not yet pose a serious threat, information collecting activities may be suspended. However, the information obtained can be used to the detriment of the person from whom it was obtained. This applies to cases of interception bargains and investors use the information about the employees of the enterprise for further approaches to the object of interest. The information obtained can also be profitable to sell other competitors.
2. Changes to the source. The solution to this problem is possible as active (forgery, erasure, erasure, etc.) or passive (non-payment data, failure to correct errors in existing databases). The most commonly pursued goal - misinformation competitor misleading it, which inevitably leads to a loss of material.
3. Destruction of information. That is the easiest way to harm through industrial espionage. Destruction of information can be advantageous if the information is a prerequisite for solving some specific business challenges.
The above problem can be solved in the implementation of industrial espionage, both individually and comprehensively. It is based on the tasks selected as methods of espionage and counter-measures to them.
PREVIOUS ATTEMPTS TO RESOLVE THE ISSUE
Brazil and Germany formally presented a draft UN resolution that calls for an end electronic espionage and extended to the global Internet for the right to privacy. "The draft resolution, we reaffirm the right to privacy and urge all States to protect it. We also urge them to end the practice of legislating concerning surveillance, interception of data and their collection for unlawful purposes, "- said the Brazilian representative to the UN, Antonio Patriota .
The document also contains a request to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navanethem Pillay, on preparations for a year report with recommendations to protect the right to privacy in the context of electronic espionage programs.